Review and update of the Hong Kong Epilepsy Guideline on status epilepticus
Convulsive status epilepticus is the most extreme form of seizure. It is a medical and neurological emergency that requires prompt and appropriate treatment. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus is usually divided into stages/steps. The International League Against Epilepsy has released a new definition of status epilepticus that may help to unify the definition in future studies. Over the last few years new information has become available regarding its management. The Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial demonstrated non-inferiority of intramuscular midazolam in early status epilepticus compared with intravenous lorazepam. Valproate and levetiracetam have also emerged as possible alternatives to phenytoin in established status epilepticus. The potential role of lacosamide in this stage of status epilepticus remains to be defined. The ongoing Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial may help to determine the most effective treatment for benzodiazepine-resistant status epilepticus. Management of refractory status epilepticus and super-refractory status epilepticus remains mostly non–evidence-based. Increasing recognition of a possible autoimmune aetiology has led to the use of immune-modulation in super-refractory status epilepticus. Ketamine is also increasingly used in this challenging condition. There are also reports of potential use of a ketogenic diet and magnesium.